Evaluation of Tuberculosis Treatment Outcome of TB/HIV Co-Infection: A Four-Year Retrospective Cohort Study in HIV-Prevalent Setting of North Central Nigeria


Despite the availability of highly effective treatment for decades, Tuberculosis(TB) remains a major health problem in Nigeria due to the increasing association between HIV and TB observed over the past three decades when HIV was discovered. However, the proportion of TB and or TB/HIV co-infected patients who have successful TB treatment outcome is not well known. This study determined the treatment outcome of TB/HIV co-infected patients with HIV negative patients in two states in Nigeria.

Materials and Methods:

A retrospective study of secondary data from eight Directly Observed Treatment Short (DOTS) course and Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) service providers in Benue and Federal Capital Territory
(FCT), Nigeria, was carried out. The period under review covers January, 2010 to December, 2013. Results: Out of the total 5266 TB cases reviewed, the HIV prevalence rate was 52%. They were predominantly (53.3%) male with mean age of 34.4 years (SD = 15.1 years). More than two-third (72.5%) of HIV-negative patients had successful treatment compared to 1718 (62.7%) HIV-positive patients. Of the 2334 HIV co-infected patients, 19.5% defaulted, 11.5% had died, 5.6% were transferred out and 0.7% failed treatment compared to HIV-negative patients amongst whom
18.3% defaulted, 3.6% died, 3.9% were transferred out and 1.6% failed treatment (p <0.05). TB/HIV co-infected patients with baseline CD4 of ≥300 cell/mm3 are more likely to have successful treatment outcome {OR-1.541 (95% CI = 1.030 – 2.305) p =0.035}. Patients ≥45 years old and those not on Co-trimoxazole Preventive Therapy (CPT) are more likely to have unsuccessful treatment outcome {OR-1.022 (95% CI = 0.643 – 1.488) p = 0.918 and OR-1.306 (95% CI = 0.956 – 1.555) respectively.


The favourable treatment outcome of HIV-negative patients is more
than that of HIV-positive patients and the most probable predictable factor responsible is the CD4 count of patient; indicating that TB/HIV co-infection has remained a major public health problem in Benue state and FCT. Hence there is the need for sustained strengthening and expansion of the national TB/HIV programmes.

Tuberculosis, Treatment Outcomes, TB/HIV, Co-Infection, DOTS

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